From the river….

Views of the Thames by Wal Daly-Smith

Working on the Thames as a commercial Skipper with the Tideway project and as Mate with Bateaux London, Wal has a unique view of the river. Whatever the weather, whatever the state of the tides, he is sensitive to the constant changes affecting the perspective of London’s landmark buildings, bridges, and boats and will when he can, seize the moment to capture them on film. He has kindly allowed me to share his pictures with you. 

Putney Bridge on a misty morning ©Wal Daly-Smith

Working for the Tideway project, building the super sewer for London under the Thames, Wal is based at Carnwath Road, on the north shore, upper side of Wandsworth Bridge. His work often takes him to the Tideway site at Putney, where he gets to see Putney Bridge in its many guises.

Putney Bridge turning the Thames to gold ©Wal Daly-Smith
Westminster Bridge and Portcullis House ©Wal Daly-Smith

His work for Bateaux London Cruises can take him as far upstream as Plantation Wharf, just below Wandsworth Bridge, and downstream to the Thames Barrier, depending on the tides and the cruise time.

A Thames Clipper beneath the London Eye ©Wal Daly-Smith
Tourist passenger boats M.V. SARPEDON and M.V. SAPELE ©Wal Daly-Smith

He knows the various sights and vessels along the river well, having watched and learnt about them since his childhood. And being part of the Thames river family, he knows many of those working on, or along the river.

Wal, centre, taking part in the Apprentices Barge Driving Race from Greenwich Pier to Westminster Bridge in October 2018. Photo ©Thames Waterman and Lighterman, Ben: @liquid_highway1

Wal tells me that his favourite day of the year is the Thames Historic Barge Driving Race, a physically tough seven mile course from Greenwich Pier to Westminster Bridge. Set up in 1975, the race celebrates the knowledge and skill of lightermen, who until the 1930s used these 30 tonne barges under oars as a major means of moving freight along the river. The crews are made up of Freemen and Apprentices of the Company of Watermen and Lightermen, who rely on their strength and knowledge of the tides to navigate the various obstacles on the course. He likes the way “the race brings people together in a good atmosphere”, with spectators on the banks, following the race on different boats, or watching from the bridges, all cheering the teams on.

An extra passenger hitching a ride ©Wal Daly-Smith

The photographs that follow show just a few of the places and the variety of craft, from tourist vessels to tugs working on industrial projects, that Wal comes across navigating the Thames.

City Cruises tourist boat MILLENNIUM DIAMOND ©Wal Daly-Smith
Cory tug REGAIN towing barges carrying waste containers ©Wal Daly-Smith
Sunset from the Blackfriars Tideway site where Wal worked earlier last year ©Wal Daly-Smith
The new Apple HQ in the UK: a major building site along the river – the old Battersea Power Station, its four chimneys now restored ©Wal Daly-Smith
Cadogan Pier ©Wal Daly-Smith
Albert Bridge ©Wal Daly-Smith

Many of Wal’s trips take him to Tower Bridge, a favourite with visitors to London, particularly if they’re able to see a Bridge Lift for ships too large to pass under the roadway – you can discover the timetable on the above link.

Tower Bridge lifts to allow golden super yacht BELLAMI upstream ©Wal Daly-Smith

He clearly loves the river at any time of the day but says: “My favourite time is at night. It can be that bit more special, probably when it’s slack tide and the river becomes a mirror, reflecting the lights beautifully…”

Passing beneath Tower Bridge ©Wal Daly-Smith
Nightfall at Tower Bridge ©Wal Daly-Smith

There are many photographers, professional and amateur, for whom the Thames is a constant source of inspiration. Just as the waters are in a continual state of flux, so the possibilities for individual photographs are infinite. Moments frozen in time, never to be replicated exactly. And Wal is one of many who have their own story to weave into the flow of the river. See here my earlier interview with Wal Daly-Smith.

The Thames: Shining in the Dark

The beauty of the river at nightfall…

As the sky slowly darkens and lights from lamps, buildings, boats and bridges begin to glow, the ever-changing river sparkles into nightlife mode. A magical time.

M.V. MERCEDES preparing for a night out

Party boats are spruced up for the evening before collecting their passengers, while the usual traffic of Thames clippers, tugs and barges carries on with normal work.

Blackfriars Bridge

The water around Blackfriars Bridge, the red chunky, abandoned pillars of an earlier bridge, and Blackfriars rail bridge is beguiling, lit by reflected lights that swirl and dance in the dangerous currents. Further downstream just beyond the Blackfriars bridges, you’ll see the discreetly lit Millennium Footbridge. It’s the first of four Thames bridges to be illuminated this year in a project designed by Leo Villareal for the Illuminated River art commission. It’s difficult to capture in a still photograph as the thin blades of white light are in constant movement through the sections across the bridge but if you’re there, it’s lovely to watch.

The Millennium Bridge
Southwark Bridge in the blue phase of its changing cycle of light

If you turn to look downstream from the Millennium Bridge to Southwark Bridge, and wait awhile, you will see the colours slowly changing.

City Cruises’ vessel CITY DELTA taking passengers to see the illuminated bridges. They are approaching Southwark Bridge, now subtly changed to pink

And onward from Southwark Bridge, is the third of the illuminated bridges, Canon Street railway bridge, again with subtly changing colours.

Cory tug RECLAIM passing under Cannon Street Railway Bridge

As I walk across Southwark Bridge beneath a darkening sky, a tug towing a barge with empty waste containers passes beneath Cannon Street Railway Bridge, bound for collection points upstream. The diversity of river traffic means that safety for all river users is vital and there have been several improvements in the last three decades.

Movements of freight traffic and passenger vessels are overseen by the London Vessel Traffic Services, VTS, part of the Port of London Authority, who are responsible for the management and safety of navigation along the tidal Thames. So, out on a walk, you will see commercial boats, tugs and tourist boats, as well as a variety of small boats. In 2007, the Port of London Authority introduced an automatic identification system, Thames AIS, so that larger vessels and tugs, towing or pushing, have now to be equipped with a screen showing where other boats are on the river. This is particularly useful for the central London Thames, where “visibility is often obscured by bridges and other obstacles.”

Tower Bridge, and just visible to the left of HMS BELFAST is a Thames Rocket heading downstream

Another important safety feature of the tidal Thames is the twenty-four hour presence of the highly-trained Royal National Lifeboat Institution, RNLI, crews in four stations along the river from Teddington to Gravesend. Their arrival is relatively recent and came about after the tragic sinking of party boat the MARCHIONESS on August 28, 1989. Fifty-one young people including the Skipper, were drowned after the dredger BOWBELLE rammed her twice near Southwark Bridge, sinking her with frightening speed. Rescues were carried out by Police launches and sister party boat the HURLINGHAM, who between them managed to save eighty people. As a result of the findings of the Thames Safety Inquiries that followed, it was agreed that there should be a permanent presence of the RNLI on the tidal Thames. After some discussion and delay, this was finally achieved in 2002.

Figures from December 8, passed on to me by Paul Dunt of the RNLI show that since they came to operate along the Thames, the four Stations have launched 14,448 times, saved 587 lives, and aided 5,017 people.

A City Cruises’ boat approaching HMS BELFAST and London Bridge

London Bridge is the fourth bridge to be illuminated this year, and like the other bridges, its colours quietly merge and change.

Tug pushing an earth-filled barge
Walking across Tower Bridge

Alongside the beauty of the night-time river lies the ever-present threat of danger. Swift-flowing currents can sweep away those who accidentally, or deliberately, end up in the water, and the recent terrorist attacks on Westminster and London Bridges have left emotions raw.

Turbulent waters at the Blackfriars bridges

However, life must go on and there is some comfort in knowing that there are those who are on permanent standby to assist in an emergency: the launches of the Marine Policing Unit, the RNLI based at four stations along the tidal Thames, and the London Fireboats based at Lambeth. Depending on the type or place of an incident, others may come to help as well as there is a shared understanding and bond between those who work regularly along the river. And with the advent of mobile phones, anyone concerned about another person, or witnessing an accident, can swiftly dial 999 for help and ask for the Coastguard. Many lives, once lost in the past, have been saved by the quick reaction of the public calling for help.

Night watchmen: a Marine Policing launch heading downstream to Cannon Street Railway Bridge and London Bridge
One of the RNLI lifeboats moored, ready for action, twenty-four hours every day of the year

Our thanks must go to all those ready to come to our aid.
You can find out more about their work by following:
Thames RNLI stations on Twitter: @rnli_teddington; @ChiswickRNLI; @TowerRNLI; @GravesendRNLI
and the MPS Marine Policing Unit on: @MPSonthewater
For all information concerning regulations on the river see: The Port of London Authority.

Ruling the River

The Port of London Authority: introducing some of their vessels on the central London tidal Thames

Tugs and tourist boats will vie with London’s bridges and buildings for your attention as you walk along the river banks so that you might miss some of the smaller craft. But look carefully and you will see among them the Port of London Authority fleet of patrol vessels; survey boats; tugs; transfer vessels; mooring maintenance craft, static cleaner barges and driftwood collectors.

Among their many responsibilities and regulations, covering all aspects of navigation and safety over the 95 miles of the tidal Thames, the Port of London Authority launches patrol the river every day of the year. Known as the Harbour Patrol Service their crews watch out for anything unusual that’s going on and, if concerned, they have the power to intercept and detain boats. Named after Thames bridges, the four patrol vessels that work the stretch of the river from Putney Bridge to the North Sea on “the middle and lower districts of the tidal Thames”, are catamarans SOUTHWARK, KEW, LAMBETH and BARNES.

Port of London Authority patrol vessel KEW passes the Lambeth River Fire Station.

You might see one of them guiding a large cruise ship up the river, and particularly, if you’re in the area around Tower Bridge, you will see them leading and watching over ships that pass through to moor next to HMS BELFAST.

Patrol vessel LAMBETH about to pass the O2 Arena.

The Port of London Authority, PLA, gives warnings of bridge closures, or partial closures, and with help from their patrols, oversees the section of the river where work is taking place. For instance, earlier this year between March and May they needed to organise arch closures on Canon Street Rail Bridge and Southwark Bridge to allow work on the Illuminated River art commission. Byelaws dated 2012, dictated that the arches should be marked in a triangle with three red discs by day and lights in the same position by night. London Bridge, was unaffected as the scaffolding used for the work did not reduce the height or shape of the arches.

The Millennium Footbridge, also a part of the art project, was reduced in height by scaffolding but not to the extent that the headroom was below that of Southwark Bridge and Canon Street Rail Bridge. However, an ancient byelaw ruled that reduced headroom should be by day marked with “a bundle of straw large enough to be easily visible and displayed at the height of restricted headroom” and “at night by a white light in place of the bundle of straw.” Though modern rules have to be observed, there are circumstances such as that of the Millennium Bridge where the traditional could be, and was followed.

Patrol vessel BARNES passing under Lambeth Bridge.

You will also see these vessels making sure that the river is supervised and kept closed for sporting events such as the annual Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race; The Thames Historic Barge Driving Race; the Great River Race; and the Race for Doggett’s Coat and Badge, the latter believed to be “the oldest continually competed sporting event in the world”. You can find out more on the PLA Events Calendar. They are also in attendance for the New Year Fireworks and for ceremonial occasions, such as the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Pageant in 2012, when the river is closed to normal traffic.

Not only did PLA vessel BARNES and tug IMPULSE help out at the Thames Historic Barge Rowing Race on July 6, 2019, but a team from the PLA also took part.
Patrol vessel RICHMOND, usually to be seen watching over the “upper district of the tidal Thames” filming a crew taking part in the Great River Race on September 14, 2019.
Patrol vessel SOUTHWARK at Lambeth Bridge watching over the rowers in the Great River Race on September 14, 2019.

Walking along beside the Thames you are also likely to see survey boats checking the channels for obstructions both under and on the water surface, as well as “providing vital information on depths and tidal data”.

Survey vessel GALLOPER darting upstream.
Survey vessel YANTLET heading downstream. Among her other equipment is a “multi-beam hydrographic echo-sounder”
Survey vessel THAME has a sophisticated surveying suite used by the PLA Hydrographic Service for the “safety of navigation charting, dredge support and geophysical and geotechnical investigation”, and more.
Pusher tug IMPULSE is equipped with a salvage pump and hydraulic crane, she can be used for a number of tasks including salvaging driftwood from the river.
BENFLEET is a RIB specially designed for the PLA, mainly used for carrying carrying crew members to and from vessels.
The LONDON TITAN with CUTTER 2 in tow. The foreshortening of the telephoto image belies her size. Check out film on the highlighted link below.

Vital for keeping the Thames clear of obstructions, LONDON TITAN was carefully designed to operate along most of the ninety-five miles of the tidal Thames, being sufficiently adaptable to pass under all the bridges as far as Richmond. She is used for “mooring maintenance; laying and recovering navigation buoys; hauling wreckage from the riverbed; supporting diving operations; and small scale plough dredging operations”. The work undertaken by her crews ensures that the river is marked and kept safe for all river users, whatever the size of their craft.

The Port of London Authority is also working with other organisations to help clean up the Thames with a Cleaner Thames campaign. They have a number of passive driftwood collectors and also driftwood craft to collect floating debris and to empty the driftwood collectors.

Passive driftwood collector below the London Eye. There are sixteen of these placed at strategic spots along the river to catch driftwood and debris carried by the tides which is picked up by the PLA driftwood craft for disposal or recycling.
DRIFTWOOD II with RAY in tow. Each year more than 400 tonnes of floating rubbish, including all kinds of plastic, branches and traffic cones are pulled from the river. Bicycles, shopping trolleys and even cars have been recovered.

The Port of London Authority is a complex organisation with highly skilled Pilots guiding cruise ships, aircraft carriers, large yachts, traditional tall ships and other vessels, though the Thames Estuary to port. And experienced Captains who patrol the tidal Thames every day of the year and know the river with its dangers but as well as their usual checks they have to be on the alert for anything. Just recently they rescued a stranded dog and sadly, patrol vessel SOUTHWARK had to tow away for examination the body of a whale found close to Battersea Bridge. The Port of London fleet is there for everyone, overseeing professionals and amateur river users alike, and you can find out more about all aspects of their work by exploring their website.

Further information:
The Port of London Authority website, my main source, covers in great detail, all aspects of navigation and safety on the tidal Thames. Details from there are in quotation marks.
Follow them on Twitter: @LondonPortAuth
The History of the Port of London: Peter Stone, Pen & Sword, 2017 is an excellent read for those wishing to explore London’s role as a port in depth.
Follow Peter Stone on Twitter: @LondonStone

Ride along the river

A portal through to happier times: the Royal Jubilee Bells in the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Pageant, June 3, 2012

Armed with a press pass for the riverside in Battersea Park, I wandered through the ill-timed June drizzle to have a look at the preparations for the most spectacular pageant to be seen along the Thames in recent times.

Seven years ago all kinds of boats were organised to celebrate HM the Queen’s sixty years on the throne and to thank her for her service to the country. But then I hadn’t learnt much about the different kinds of boats that ply the Thames, I was there for the bells. The Jubilee Bells and their part in the pageant.

Albert Bridge: STEVEN B and Bennett’s barge URSULA KATHERINE carrying the Jubilee bells lined up on June 3rd before the start of the pageant

However, looking through past pictures for this piece, I was pleased to spot tug Steven B, whom I’ve seen many times since. She was designated to push Bennett’s barge Ursula Katherine downstream with her precious cargo of Jubilee Bells and eight ringers positioned below, led by Captain of the Royal Jubilee Bells, Dickon Love. They were to lead the flotilla with their bells sounding out along the river, something that had never happened before, to be answered by the riverside churches, cathedrals and Westminster Abbey as they passed, then echoed throughout London and the country. Inspired by this evocative and imaginative element of the pageant, I decided to try to photograph as many of these as I could before the event.

Protected by STEVEN B and SWS ESSEX, the bells sound as the ringers had a final practice by Battersea Park before setting off at the head of the pageant
A pause by the Peace Pagoda in Battersea Park for the Jubilee Bells and their escort before the start of the pageant

So on a few bright days before the pageant I set off with my camera. I began at All Saints Fulham, a mustering point for some of the boats that took part in the flotilla, though the official start was at Albert Bridge. Since then their bells have been repaired by the famous Whitechapel Bell Foundry, in London, sadly now under threat from an inappropriate development as a “bell-themed” hotel.

All Saints Church, Fulham

On the opposite side of the river stands St Mary’s, Putney, from where it was possible to watch the gathering of some of the boats taking part. After an arson attack in 1973 their bells were recast by John Taylor & Co, of Loughborough, and the new peal was dedicated in 1983.

St Mary’s, Putney

The present ring of the Chelsea Old Church bells was installed in 1977 by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry. The bells were funded by various donors but I liked the fact that the treble bell was given by the members of the Children’s Service and their families, the children having raised money by doing odd jobs at home or for others.

Chelsea Old Church

St Mary’s Battersea has a fine tradition of bell-ringing. Their original ring was cast by Thomas Janaway of Chelsea and after his death in 1788, his tools and equipment were bought by William Mears at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry.

St. Mary’s Battersea

Further downstream Westminster Abbey, so much a part of our national history, and St Margaret’s Westminster, joined in the celebration. St Margaret’s bells have fallen temporarily silent as the church is under restoration. Westminster Abbey has had a long association with the Whitechapel Bell Foundry and its present ring was cast and dedicated in 1971.

St Margaret’s Westminster in the foreground and behind, Westminster Abbey

As the flotilla passed St Paul’s Cathedral, a specially composed peal was rung to celebrate the occasion. In 2018 the bells were taken down and transported for cleaning and servicing to John Taylor & Co, where they were originally cast in 1878.

St Paul’s Cathedral

St. James Garlickhythe is the permanent home for the Jubilee bells after their starring role in the pageant. They were dedicated on June 17, 2012 and installed out of sight in the tower, from where they were rung for the first time on July 4.

St James, Garlickhythe

The passing Jubilee flotilla would have caught a quick glimpse of Southwark Cathedral and heard a part of their specially composed peal rung for the first time. The cathedral has a long tradition of bell-ringing and their bells have recently been restored by John Taylor & Co.

Southwark Cathedral

Almost hidden from view, the bells of St Magnus the Martyr answered the peal of the floating belfry as it passed by. After a chequered history with bells in the past, the bells now in place were cast by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry between 2008 and 2009 and dedicated on October 26, 2009.

St Magnus the Martyr with The Monument to the right

The carillon bells of All Hallows by the Tower, set a little back from the river, joined in the joyous chorus of sound with a rendition of God Save the Queen. They were cast by John Taylor & Co, in 1947 after their bells had been totally destroyed during the Blitz.

All Hallows by the Tower

Just below Tower Bridge, where the tall-masted boats unable to pass under the bridges upstream were anchored in the Avenue of Sail, stands the church of St Mary with All Saints, Rotherhithe where there is a strong tradition of bell-ringing.

St Mary Rotherhithe

The idea of a floating belfry came originally from the Diamond Jubilee Pageant Trust. Unable to fund such a venture themselves, the Trust approached the Whitechapel Bell Foundry to see if there was already a ring of bells due to be cast for a City Church to commemorate the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee, which they could borrow for the pageant before their installation.

The timing was right: the church of St. James Garlickhythe had just taken the decision to order a new ring of bells. Between them, with the help of others, Sir Andrew Parmley, who became Lord Mayor of London 2016–17, and expert Dickon Love, author of a guide to church bells of the City of London, brought the plan to fruition.

The Jubilee Bells were cast by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry between February and March 2012 and are named after senior members of the Royal Family and together with other inscriptions on Prince William’s Bell, the words “Dickon Love put us here” will be an enduring testament to his tireless work on behalf of the City of London’s Bells and their history. Famous for the making of Big Ben and the Liberty Bell, many of the Whitechapel Foundry’s bells, along with those of John Taylor & Co., could be heard from the banks of the Thames as the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Pageant sailed past. Now plans for the Whitechapel Bell Foundry’s demise after over four hundred and fifty years, have been narrowly passed by the Tower Hamlets Council. In its place will stand a ‘bell themed boutique hotel’ described by protestors as “cultural vandalism”. In these days of thoughtless, easy come, easy go fashion, I wonder how long that will last… Probably nothing like five hundred years.

The casting of one of the Jubilee bells at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry © John Sutton
The Jubilee Bells on display at St. James Garlickhythe, June 2012
The Jubilee Bells installed in St. James, Garlickhythe © John Sutton

For further information:
Read the Gentle Author’s account of his visit to St. James Garlickhythe to see the Jubilee Bells.

Film: the story of the making of the Jubilee Bells with Sir Andrew Parmley, Dickon Love, and others.

Thanks to John Sutton who kindly gave me permission to use his photographs.

Sir Thomas Peirson Frank

The discreet hero who saved London from flooding during the Blitz

Five years ago, in October 2014, a memorial plaque dedicated to Sir Thomas Peirson Frank was unveiled in Victoria Tower Gardens next to the Houses of Parliament. Until then, virtually no-one knew his name yet it was his vital work that literally saved London from drowning during the Blitz. He was one of that proud and modest generation who got on with what they had to do to protect the country, and then quietly returned to their civilian lives without talking about their achievements and in many cases families were unaware of what they had done.

At the time, his work and that of his team on permanent standby to protect London from flooding, was kept out of the public eyes for reasons of national security. This was partly to give nothing away to the enemy and partly so as not to undermine public morale by making known the very serious danger that significant areas of the capital were at risk from flooding by the Thames.

And yet, this quiet, unassuming but highly efficient engineer, who served with the Royal Engineers in WW1, was at the heart of efforts to keep London as safe as possible and to keep traffic moving throughout the intensive bombing during the War. In 1939 he was appointed the London County Council coordinating officer for Road Repairs and Public Utility Services, and was knighted in 1942 for his organisation of the city’s vital infrastructure, though his flood prevention work was carefully kept secret. He remained in charge until 1945.

On his appointment as President of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1945 he was asked to give an account of his work in his Presidential Address, which was kindly passed on to me by his grandson, Martin Frank. Though overseeing repairs affecting services across London, he was specifically concerned with drainage, vital in a densely populated low lying area; with the Thames bridges, vulnerable to aerial attack and the construction of four temporary bridges should any become impassable; and a raft of flood defences. As early as July 1934 he was asked to help prepare a report on the parts of London most at risk from flooding. In a transcript of his report he explains “About 20 square miles of the County of London lie below the level of the highest recorded tides and about 10 square miles are below the level of ordinary spring tides.” After a serious flood in 1928 when much of central London was inundated, including sections of the Underground and the Blackwall and Rotherhithe tunnels, and fourteen people trapped in their basements were drowned, Peirson Frank was well aware of the problems that the city could face: the potential for far greater casualties and widespread disruption in the case of war was alarming.

The fact that his team was able to react so quickly after a breach in the Thames walls was down to his creation of four depots: Battersea Park; Southwark Park; Tunnel Avenue, Greenwich; and Pyrimont Wharf, on the Isle of Dogs. Each was manned 24 hours a day with a store of timber, tarpaulin and sandbags. They were in operation by August 24, 1940. To ensure the quickest response possible, a tug and barges loaded with sandbags were on permanent standby to carry out emergency repairs; which would have to be done as quickly as possible before high tide. Frank describes how on May 11, 1941 “the river wall at Bankside was breached, but by prompt action on the part of the depot staff, temporary protective measures were constructed before high tide which occurred about two and a half hours later.” When possible, their work was carried out at night to minimise the risk of observation by enemy spies.

The Underground tunnels passing beneath the Thames were also at risk, so the London Passenger Transport Board installed hydrophones to detect and locate unexploded bombs. They also installed floodgates to protect the rest of the system and those who sheltered in the stations during the Blitz. Precautions were taken at Blackwall and Rotherhithe road tunnels, both of which emerge on the south bank of the Thames below the high tide level. Each was fitted with a 22 ton flood gate.

In all, Peirson Frank’s teams were called to 122 bomb strikes on the river walls. Gustave Milne, Director of the Thames Discovery Programme, whose researchers have done so much to bring Sir Thomas Peirson Frank’s vital war contribution out from the shadows, explains that “Any one of those could have flooded the area behind the wall causing massive destruction and loss of life.” But it was only when he and his team noticed the many repairs in the river wall that they began to look for documentary evidence. And on searching through the London Metropolitan Archives they discovered logbooks, photographs and correspondance concerning the London County Council’s Thames Flood Prevention and Emergency Repair plans hidden or forgotten for seventy years. They were astonished by this unexpected find and by the sheer number of sites listed.

Frank’s repair to the wall in Victoria Tower Gardens can be clearly seen from across the Thames

One of the best known of Frank’s surviving repairs, for many have been completely rebuilt, is at Victoria Tower Gardens next to the House of Lords. It was struck by a large high explosive bomb on the night of April 16-17, 1941, thought to have been aimed at the Houses of Parliament. It blasted a nine-metre hole in the Thames wall, leaving a large part of Westminster exposed to flooding at the next high tide. But the team reacted quickly, filling in the breach at once with sandbags, then rubble and eventually in August, 1941, with shuttered concrete.

The repair in the wall of Victoria Tower Gardens shows how the blast extended well below the high tide mark

And you can still still the repair from both inside Victoria Tower Gardens, where there is additional strengthening to the parapet in the form of a buttress, and from the river side on the foreshore below, where broken pieces of granite from the original wall lie scattered among the stones in the mud.

Pieces of the original wall still lie scattered on the foreshore

Peirson Frank’s grandson, Martin Frank, born after his grandfather’s death said that the War, being a taboo subject for so many of that generation, the family knew nothing about his secret work until they were approached by the BBC in 2013. The producers of Coast wanted to include a section on how Frank saved London from flooding, and shortly afterwards Gustave Milne got in touch and told them of his discoveries. They already knew about his involvement with the widening of Putney Bridge, the new bridge at Wandsworth in 1940; and the demolition and construction of the new Waterloo Bridge in 1942, where you can see his name inscribed with others at the north end of the bridge. But they knew nothing of his vital flood prevention work.

The names of politicians, architects and engineers, including that of Sir Thomas Peirson Frank carved on Waterloo Bridge
Waterloo Bridge

Having made his discoveries, Gustave Milne felt strongly that Peirson Frank’s heroic work for the protection of London from flooding should be remembered, and it was at his suggestion that a plaque in his memory be fixed to his repair of the Thames wall in Victoria Tower Gardens. It was installed on October 29th, 2014 by the then Westminster City Mayor, Audrey Lewis. Grouped around her were several of Peirson Frank’s descendants, Gustav Milne, representatives from the Institution of Civil Engineers, the Greater London Authority, and the University College Institute of Archeology, together with the Thames Discovery Team, supported by the Museum of London, all of whom had played a part in uncovering and sharing the vital work of Sir Thomas Peirson Frank. Now the story of the exceptional service he gave to our country in the Second World War will live on.

Plaque commemorating Sir Thomas Peirson Frank centred on his wartime repair in Victoria Tower Gardens, still good after all these years
Plaque fixed to the wall of Sir Thomas Peirson Frank’s repair in Victoria Tower Gardens

For further information see:

The Thames Discovery Programme
For more on the temporary wartime bridges see the fascinating A London Inheritance site, whose author has many historical pictures taken by his father from 1946 to 1954.
Cover image of Sir Thomas Peirson Frank by kind permission of his grandson, Martin Frank.